Friday, October 25, 2013

Wind Energy in China

In 2012, 12,960 MW of new wind capacity was installed in China, increasing the accumulated capacity to 75,324.2 MW.
During the year, wind power generated 100.4 TWh of electricity replacing nuclear power as the third largest electricity source in China.
But compared to conventional power, wind power only accounted for 2% of generation, so there is a high potential for growth.
In the future, wind power could and should play a more important role in the clean and sustainable energy and electricity supply.
After years of rapid development, China’s wind power industry has entered an adjustment period and development has slowed.
The industry has shifted from expansion of quantity to the improvement of quality. The government and enterprises are paying attention to improving the quality of the Chinese wind power industry. In 2012, grid integration and consumption were the most important bottlenecks that restrict China’s wind power development.
The government is taking policy, management, and technical measures to overcome these problems. The 12th Five-Year Plan for Renewable Energy Development and the 12th Five-Year Plan
for Wind Power Industry Development were released in 2012. They set clear wind power development and technology goals for 2015 and 2020.
China’s 2012 Energy Policy states that by the end of 2015 the consumption of nonfossil energy will account for 11.4% of primary energy consumption and the proportion
of non-fossil energy installed capacity will reach 30%. Compared to 2010, the energy consumption per gross domestic product (GDP) will be reduced by 16% and the
emission of CO2 per GDP will be reduced by 17%.
In 2012, the 12th Five-Year Plan for Renewable Energy Development and the 12th Five-Year Plan for Wind Power Industry Development were released by the Chinese government. It is written in these development plans that in 2015 the accumulated grid-integrated capacity of wind power will be 100 GW (5 GW offshore), and annual electricity generation will be 190 TWh, representing more than
3% of the national generation. In 2020, the accumulated grid-integrated capacity will be 200 GW (30 GW offshore), and annual electricity generation will be 300 TWh, accounting for more than 5% of national generation.
Wind power will be a major electricity source for China. Meanwhile, developing wind technology and equipment during 2011 and 2015 is also addressed in 12th Five-Year Plan for Renewable Energy Development. The plan identifies manufacturing of 6–10 MW wind turbines and their key components, developing grid-friendly wind integration technology,
optimizing the design of large wind farms, improving wind power forecasting, and enhancing related grid operation control.
By the end of 2012, according to CWEA’s statistics, 7,872 new wind turbines with generation capacity of 12,960 MW were installed in China (Taiwan excluded), which accounted for 29% of the new global capacity for the year. China’s total wind generation capacity reached 75,324.2 MW, the most for any country in the world.
The accumulated offshore wind power capacity reached 389.6 MW, with the addition of 127 MW (46 new offshore wind turbines) in 2012. The new capacity added in 2012 was 26.5% less than was added in 2011. However, total installed capacity still increased by 20.8%. The wind power electrical generation of 2012 reached 100.4 TWh, which accounted for 9.4% of renewable energy electricity for the year.
So far, nine coastal provinces have released offshore wind power development plans.
In 2012, China invested 27.2 billion USD (20.618 billion EUR) in wind farm development. Wind generation contributed 100.4 TWh, which could satisfy the electrical needs of 62.75 million households in China.
In 2012, the top five developers in China accounted for 56% of new wind farm projects
In 2012, the top five manufactures of newly installed capacity were Goldwind (2,521.5 MW), United Power (2,029 MW), Sinovel (1,203MW), Mingyang (1,133 MW) and XEMC-wind (893 MW).
There were seven manufactures whose newly installed capacity in 2012 was over 500 MW. And the top 10 manufactures accounted for 81% of China’s new wind turbines.
By the end of 2012, the Chinese mainland completed construction of more than 1,000 wind farms, and the accumulated installed capacity exceeded 75 GW.
The top three provinces installed the following amounts in 2012: Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region (1,119.4 MW), Hebei (908.8 MW), and Gansu (1,069.8 MW). The annual full load hours were 1,890 in 2012.
Compared to 2011, average wind farm capital expenditure increased a little in 2012. On one hand, this was partly caused by the increase of average price of wind turbines; on the other hand, with the development of southern market, special wind turbines with longer blades became the focus of the market, which caused an increase in turbine price, transportation costs, and installation fees in 2012.