About what we want to do


X Holding, Romania
April 2013








This summary provides an overview of the results of the environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) conducted for the construction and operation of a wind farm with a capacity of 1000 MW / h, south of Mangalia, Constanta county, Romania by X Foundation and X Holding. 

This summary has been prepared to provide a brief overview of evaluation studies of the social, environmental and labor. 


2.1 Identification of the wind farm and Design

The wind farm will be located in the city of Mangalia, Constanta county, 17 kilometers west of the coast of the Black Sea 

The park includes 1,000 wind turbines, connected by cables buried to a new power station, which is located on site, which in turn will be connected by underground power lines of a power plant, which is located across the inside. It will be built about 15 miles of road. 

In the project area, there are no human settlements. Turbines are placed at a distance of about 40 m from each other, we consider two parallel rows of turbines 40 m of distance between them. 


The wind farm will consist of 1,000 turbines, each with a capacity of 1 MW, with a total maximum capacity for the entire wind farm up to 1000 MW. Each turbine includes, for the tip, a tower with a housing containing electrical turbine generator, gearbox and transformer rotor. Total height of the turbine is 70 or 80 m of the rotor shaft is connected to the rotor blades with a diameter of 25 m. The blades are arranged horizontally. Each turbine will be placed on a concrete foundation in small, permanent, with a maximum diameter of 4m. 

Depending on the area that will be made available, we turbines, solar panels alternating directions architect so that the view of the park and look tidy and pleasant. 

Access to the turbine is made only from the road E 87, ports and roads we build. All park will be bordered by metal fence. Area of ​​the park will only produce electricity. Inside the park, do not use land for agrigultura or other destinations, so there is no risk of breakage underground networks agrigole campaigns, plowing or other operations. 

The turbines will be connected to a power supply again. Central will be connected to the high voltage grid to facilitate transportation and for economic reasons. 

3.1 The construction of outbuildings and define the edge

The project will be executed on their own, we have divided the staff into 3 teams: 

1. Since the last few months of 2013 will begin to limit land and the construction of 15 km of road industrial 

2. The second team will build office building,

3. The third team to build evidence of electrical testing laboratory and warehouse for repairs.

3.2 The ground installation of the turbines.

The turbine installation will be done on their own. As we work burying power lines, substations construction of foundations, paving and restoration of temporary. 

Supply of equipment and materials, electrical work, installation of turbines, commissioning, building permit documentation (technical project, the details of the implementation plans and management) will be developed before starting work. Construction will be reviewed by the Inspectorate for the construction of buildings - Constanta county. 

3.3 Traffic

The construction will be associated with increased traffic, both with heavy equipment (trucks and construction equipment) and motor vehicles for the transport of passengers for the movement of construction personnel on site. During peak construction, it could be daily site visits to dozens of additional trucks and cars, with maybe 10-15 trips per hour peak. Trucks include:

• Vehicles limited (VAR) with a length of 19 m, with a higher tonnage 42.5 tons, which will be used for the transport of wind turbine components;

• Semi-trailers for the transport of platforms installed formwork for foundations, foundations reinforced steel, transformer substation of the project from 1000 MW of power, various electrical substation equipment to the Project

• concrete.

3.4 Human Resources

During the construction, on average, will be employed about 275-300 people, although this number could increase to 400. Among these works have provided is as follows:

Summary temporary organization for the first two years of the project

Number of individual employment contracts:

Unskilled workers: 175

Team leaders: 20

Foremen: 5

Mechanics and drivers (for equipment) 60

TESA 8.5

Management Team will be provided initial management for 3 people, with the studies that have so far

Total "" "272 employees

After two years in which to achieve the final form of X park, we again hiring staff as follows:

• Each turbine will enter the revised twice a year, excluding wear and tear on the operating parameters. Each inspection takes 8-10 working days according to the Labour Code in force is a team of 10 employees. Conclude that only a single arithmetic turbine Wax maintenance 20,000 days of work per year. The solar year is about 250 days, it is required from the outset to take at least 1200 people only for maintenance.

• 50 people will deal with electronic monitoring and repair of equipment and X Foundation provide continuous training of such personnel in charge.

• 290 people will be employed to protect

• 160 firefighters will be hired

• 10 people will be employed in the medical field also

• 100 drivers and crane operators will work in Project X

• 5 waiter

• 5 receptionist, etc..

3.5 Permissions

The construction of the wind farm will get a series of approvals and permits. These include:

• Certificate of Urbanism (CU) and Urban Plan (PUZ). Planning for the certificate of the wind farm and the Urban Area Plan will be issued by the City of Mangalia;

• The environmental impact - Environmental Protection Agency Constanta;

• building permit. Once released, it will be valid for two years, only the maximum period required for entry into the wind farm;

• Authorization of operation for the documentation to be submitted for approval at the end of the construction;

• The technical connection (ATR) for the power lines, which will try to get approval when the building permit.

3.6 Public Consultations

- A public meeting to discuss documentation Urban Plan (PUZ) to be held at City Hall Mangalia, which will be the subject of a period of time before the meeting of advertisement in a newspaper of wide circulation and sending the notice board room Mangalia.

3.7 Land Acquisition

Landowners will be compensated properly after the sale purchase contracts.

No one will have to move.

Transactions are under negotiation.

4 Impact

4.1 Introduction

The report assesses the impact on forms for all phases of the wind park project during the construction, operation and shutdown.

These impacts are summarized below. If the proposed mitigation measures are negative impacts or to highlight the environmental benefits, they are referred to as key points.

4.2 Soils

Soils project site belonging to X are fertile, but they are negatively impacted by erosion and wind farm operation and aggravated by dry weather. There is no evidence of any form of soil contamination on the project site. Soil compaction due to the movement of heavy vehicles and machinery during the construction period is reduced through the implementation of best practices for soil management, including segregation and charging excavated soil and subsoil. Plan for prevention of accidental pollution and control to be implemented to reduce the risk of contamination of the soil during the construction phase, including the fuel tanks stored and closed area and secure storage for waste waterproof and implementation of strict procedures for refueling.

The erosion during construction will be reduced through the implementation of a plan of water management and erosion control. This includes storage soil for later use, that limit temporarily affected areas during construction, the installation of temporary erosion control measures for limiting losses of water (such as docks and other facilities for the conservation silt) and restore temporary immediately after completion of the construction.

Therefore, no significant impact is expected during construction. During maintenance equipment operation phase will be consistent with the Plan for the prevention and control of pollution incidents will be developed during the operational phase. The transformers will be inserted into holes to control spillage or leakage potential.

Indicate that throughout the entire project will land used industrial land. We are committed to the completion of the project to make agriculture, but during the development project, the X park will only be producing clean electricity, not agriculture.

4.3 Water Resources

Bottled water stored in tanks or will be used to provide the necessary initial construction phase.

During operation, the wind farm will need to water leaks and will not be registered on the site, but the site pooling on the surface of paved areas (access roads, including platforms of pillar cranes and turbines). For this, we can conclude contracts for the supply of water and sewerage services. X Park will be connected to water supply and sanitation in the city of Mangalia. Thus, you eliminate pooling, which are small anyway, there will be significant impacts on the rate of loss of or natural hydrographic network during operation of the wind farm.

4.4 Biodiversity

4.4.1 Avifauna

Via Pontica migration corridor is a minimum distance of 5 km, so it requires no special problem. It will use ultrasound equipment for the Protection of Birds.

4.4.2 Bats

Monitoring species of bats will be operational phase to assess the actual impact on bats and to determine the need to implement additional measures to mitigate the impact of the species. From the studies so far show that the area would also be populated species, but we will continue monitoring after the start of the project.

4.4.3 Other elements of flora and fauna

The wind farm is located near sites reserves or other places considerable biodiversity.

Wildlife monitoring studies have identified the following species considered important European ground squirrels (Spermophilus Citellus) and the lizard (Podarcis taurica steppe) and dragon (Coluber (Dolichophis) caspius). A number of other studies will be conducted before construction, to identify elements of rare plants and animals in areas that will be affected and will be used to plan appropriate steps to mitigate the impacts for each site separately. This could involve, for example, the transfer of animals or change of position a little 'to avoid dens existing turbines and construction planning outside periods of torque / nesting, unless such measures are necessary to protect important species.

From the information we have, in the park there may be some species of birds to be removed from the area of ​​origin and transferred. From our estimates, rabbits could live within the company, but we do not want to change biorhythm. That's why we take care to transfer their neighbor.

How wild boar migration from Bulgaria to the north, remember that we took into account the exact location of their farm in the X migration corridor. For this reason we have decided to close the perimeter fence so that there is no problem.

Each land has suffered temporary impacts during construction will be restored and rebuilt with vegetation.

we buy and use temporary special equipment ultrasonic cleaner to remove the animals most likely to suffer.

4.5 Elements of landscape and visual impact

We performed an assessment of visual and landscape impact due to the presence of turbines and panels and its elements are given below. This evaluation was conducted in accordance with the best practices in the landscape and visual impact assessment. In general, the evaluation concluded that the impact generated landscape and visual perception problems will be low or moderate to low (which implies that it is not expected to create significant adverse effects).

We, the developers help reduce the impact on the landscape and visual perspectives in:

• Design of new access routes to follow, as far as possible, the natural contours of the land;

• Reduce the need for immediate restoration of vegetation removed and areas of temporary work;

• Limit the installation of the turbine the appropriate indicators of labor protection and placing them on the turbine gates. Placement of advertising materials and logos of turbines are authorized;

• turbines distant and any structures above ground at the end of the wind farm operating.

• The turbines will be located in two parallel linear arrays, the same distance. This will create the image of order. Between the two rows of turbines will access highway, parallel and equidistant to the two rows of modern turbines.

As usual in such cases require the Romanian civil aviation authorities, wind towers, spindles and blades will be painted white and the towers will be equipped with external lights.

4.6 Air Quality

There will be significant increases in the level of air pollution generated during construction and operation of the project. During the construction phase, the emissions in the atmosphere will consist of dust generated from construction / rehabilitation (eg, excavations, movement of construction equipment) and emissions from combustion of vehicles and equipment for the building of the site. During the rehabilitation / construction dust control measures applied and not significant adverse impacts expected dust generated.

The emissions of construction equipment and vehicles will be small-scale and temporary and will be minimized. Therefore, no significant impact is expected to do so.

During operation, there will be no significant emissions because it will be limited to the occasional traffic and maintenance activities.

In addition, each unit of electricity generated from wind power within the Project X will replace a unit of electricity generated by other means, including fossil fuels. Therefore, the development of wind power contributes to the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants generated from the production of electricity from conventional fossil fuels (mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen). Project X is expected that the transaction will result in a reduction of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions each year, if the generation of electricity from wind farms is compared with the production of electricity using current mix consists mainly of fossil fuels used for the production of electricity in Romania.

4.7 Waste

Waste produced during construction will consist mainly basement rocks and other building materials such as cement and inert waste.

The developers of the project will reduce the production of waste and re-use, recycle or recover waste as much as possible, with recycling facilities authorized.

Topsoil will be stored and reused to restore some areas after the completion of construction activities. Underground excess, stones, other inert waste and non-recyclable municipal solid waste will be disposed of in municipal waste landfill. Small amounts of hazardous waste (paints, oils, etc.), it will be picked up by an authorized waste collection.

All waste activities will be carried out in accordance with the plan of waste management and no significant adverse effects are expected to do so.

Amount of waste produced during the operation will be very low and will be mainly from maintenance operations. To remove any doubt, we conclude from the contract home hygiene.

4.8 Noise and vibration

During the early stages of construction and operation will generate noise. during construction, the noise will be generated by the plant and equipment (excavators, bulldozers, cranes, generators, etc.) and vehicles (trucks ready concrete mixer, construction machinery and goods, including heavy transport equipment).

The Parties shall communicate to nearby residents and the authorities held before major construction activities that may generate noise levels of disturbance (eg turbine nearby building, the heavier periods of traffic).

Impacts generated by construction and equipment will be temporary and will be limited to small areas of the site at any time during the project X.

No construction work will occur at night, but may occasionally work on weekends to run.

Much of the traffic generated by the construction of the project will be on the European road E 87, which is a main high street traveled. The noise produced during further stages of construction will therefore not be a motive for concern. The wind turbine noise during operation, to the nearest house was analyzed in the environmental impact assessment and cumulative impact assessments. Cumulative impact assessment has concluded that the noise levels will be within acceptable limits. Intends to develop mitigation measures in accordance with the law (STAS 10.009/1988 and ord. 1028/2004) or levels recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) through the 'Guidelines for community noise in the night-time noise and guidelines for the 'Europe'. Mitigation measures may include the installation of screens / barriers, in agreement with the local regulation turbines and other such measures. It is important to note that the weather and other conditions (rain, wind, etc.) affects the direction and distance at which sound can be heard. During the operational phase, developers, at the request of local residents, will measure the levels of noise in the houses nearest the turbines and implement additional mitigation measures, where it will be necessary to avoid that the noise is within the limits allowed by law.

4.9 Traffic and transport

For all phases of the project specific construction phase will be the traffic on the European road E 87, and the new access road. In peak periods of construction, through a single point could go up to 20-25 vehicles per hour. It will develop a plan for traffic management, including the assessment of the impacts of traffic and health risks, as well as measures to mitigate the impacts, such as the installation of signs and safety, to ensure that control measures are refucerea and maintain the risk to an acceptable level.

The final path will be discussed and agreed in consultation with the county of Constanta Council and the National Company of Motorways and National Roads before work.

The project will generate very little traffic during the operation, with a significant impact, given that we are talking about the European way.

4:10 The use of the soil

As indicated in paragraph 2.2 above of the total area of ​​the park will be purchased. Sole purpose of acquisition will be the production of electricity.

4.11 Job opportunities and other economic benefits

As mentioned in section 3.3, under construction, will create a significant number of temporary work opportunities (2 years). It will also create, during operation, a number of jobs of a permanent nature (probably 2,000 of which 1,500 will monitor and repair and maintenance of plant turbines and X Foundation provides ongoing training of such personnel at no charge) . Development companies help in the recruitment and retention of local employment in these jobs, providing realistic information about job opportunities, making job offers and disclosed and provide training courses for permanent positions. We will keep in touch with A.J.O.F.M. Constance and technical schools in the county.

Purchase local goods and services during periods of construction and operation will have a positive impact on the local economy. In addition, X Foundation to pay the renewal fees for the city budget Mangalia the duration of the project, which should be at least 50 years.

4.12 Social Impact

Social impacts are expected during the construction period is negligible.

Local workers will already have homes nearby places and remaining workers will be easier staying in a hotel in the area was purchased to be modernized and equipped with all the necessary services.

Other workers who have no accommodation in we facilitate transfer by providing partial salary advances and settlement of rent. We do not agree housing form and we will never use.

All employees are required to adhere to a strict code of conduct that prohibits disturbing people nearby. We define and implement procedures to determine the appropriate behavior of security personnel from other members of the local population.

4.13 Cultural Heritage

In the project area were not detected in sites of historical or archaeological interest.

Therefore there are no significant impacts. However, it will be done and put in place a procedure for handling incidental findings, to ensure that any unexpected discovery during the construction period is correctly identified, protected and evaluated in detail.

4.14 Electromagnetic signals

Wind turbines are able to jam electromagnetic signals used for telecommunications, navigation and radar equipment. For these situations, we will contact all the relevant authorities, to identify and eliminate problems in the operation of the wind farm.

4.15 Emergencies

Wind power plants operating in cold climates may suffer in certain weather conditions due to a malfunction or frost and ice buildup on the blades of the rotor can lead to the phenomenon of "roll" of the rotor blades or ice from the wind turbine, which could compromise public safety. The rotor blades of a wind turbine may also suffer from effects due to the intensity of wind shear.

Development companies take measures to reduce this risk, the design of turbines stop automatically when the accumulation of ice or high-speed wind and performing periodic inspection and maintenance works. In addition, X Park will be closed by a fence, there will be no agricultural activities, reducing the risk of impact if unlikely, an accident.

4.16 Cumulative impacts

To achieve cumulative impact assessments are not known other parks in coastal areas.


5.1 Management of social and environmental

Key mechanism for managing social and environmental phase of detailed design and construction phases of the unpredictable will be to obtain licenses, permits and approvals issued by the Romanian authorities. Each turbine will enter the revised twice a year, excluding wear and tear on the operating parameters.

5.2 Reporting

X Foundation will make available to the Romanian authorities and reports required by the notices, agreements and permits.

In addition, important elements of the project will be made known to local authorities and other third parties in accordance with the plan for stakeholder involvement.

Costing of products
A. Parameters


Wind farm
50 years

Buildings, Roads
50 years

Electrical networks
50 years

50 years

A2. Wind farm installation costs factors
Cost of land
€ 90 millions
€ 14 millions
€ 90 millions
electrical network
€ 17.4 millions
5% of cost
€ 700 millions
1% of cost
€ 14 millions
Architect, design
1% of cost
€ 14 millions
1% of cost
€ 14 millions
Technical Assistance
1% of cost
€ 14 millions
Legal Consultant
1% of cost
€ 14 millions
Technical Adviser
1% of cost
€ 14 millions
Personal Training
0.3% of cost
€ 4.2 Million
Wind turbines
1.  000 million
Construction price
864 millions   
Average net cost
€ 1,000 17,400 km / km
€ 17 millions
High cost network

€ 2,000 / km
technical. Specific 2.7%
€ 34.8 millions
A3. Operating and
Maintenance costs
Land planning

2 000. € / ha / year
Buildings cost

100,000. € / year
Payroll costs

€ 7 500,350 / year
1.9% of price
43,418 € 746.8
Insurance Rates
0,17% of production
€ 2.8 Million
Wind turbines
WT = 1 000P
1,000,000 kW

14.6 km

800. has
kW / year
000 8760000000
Discount rate

B. Costs

B1. Expenses
1373719 066.8. €
Building cost

€ 14 millions
Turbine foundation

€ 866 millions
Land cost

€ 90 millions

€ 90 millions
Electrical network

€ 17.4 millions

509.719 066.8. €
Workshops and maintenance
€ 70 millions
Legal adviser

€ 14 millions
Technical Equipment

€ 37 millions
Training expenses

€ 0.42 millions
B2. Breakdown of
annual operation and
maintenance costs
2.47% / kWh
€ 8 millions
Land rent
00:24% / kWh
€ 0.8 Million
12:23% / kWh
€ 0.75 millions
Payroll cost
2:33% / kWh
€ 7,500,350.
6.17% / kWh
€ 20 millions
Insurance rate
0,17% / kWh
€ millions *****
B3. Specific cost
In the cost of energy
Wind turbines
61.7% / kWh
€ 200 millions
0.9% / kWh
€ 3 Million
5.56% / kWh
€ 18 millions / kWh
5.56% / kWh
€ 18 millions / kWh
Electrical Network
0.216% / kWh
0.7 millions € / kWh
15.43% / kWh
€ 50 millions / kWh
2:32% Equipment / kWh
€ 7.5 millions / kWh
A, 047% / kWh
0.152 millions €  
Legal adviser
0.058% / kWh
0.187 millions €  
12:07% / kWh / €
0.225 millions / kWh
0.123% / kWh
0.4 millions € / kWh
production cost
0.037 ********
2. Investment

A. Parameters

A1. Parameters

Economic project

10 years
The discount rate

Interest rate

Loan amortization

12 years
Grace period

2 years
€ 0061. / KWh
Annual inflation

8. %
Energy value

€ 534,360 millions
Power warranty

A3. Investment
subsidy report.
0. %
Interest rate

Tax Reserve

2. %
Tax Accounting

€ 20 millions
Annual rate

A4. Parameters
From the previous analysis

Wind turbines
1,000. P
1,000,000 Mw / h
Cost of land

90 millions €  
Road length

14.6. km
Air park

3000. has
annual energy
8,760,000,000 MWh
Capacity factor

Energy losses

Net energy

534,360 € millions  
Net price rises

0.061. € Mw
B. cost

Land cost

€ 90 millions

€ 42 millions
Electrical networks.
1.74% of cost
€ 17.4 millions

1373719 066.8 €
1.00% of cost
€ 14 millions
Legal adviser
1.00% of cost
€ 14 millions
technical equipment
2.70% of cost
 34.8 millions
Training costs
0.03. %
€ 0.42 millions
Turbines cost

€ 1,000 millions
Installation Cost

1,373,719 066.8 €  
Wind farms
operating and
Annual salary

€ 7 500,350  
€ 2,800,053
Annual insurance.
0.2. %
Of production
Operation and
€ 24 millions / year