Friday, April 19, 2013

New wind harvesting invention

Is this what the cities of the future will look like? Towering skyscrapers fitted with softly rotating panelled windows that harness wind energy and convert it into electricity? It is if Professor Farzad Safaei has anything to do with it.
Professor Safaei, Director of University of Wollongong's (UOW) ICT Research Institute, and his team, have invented a new kind of wind turbine with big possibilities. Its unique design means it can be installed on the sides or tops of skyscrapers and large apartment buildings. It it is also quieter, cheaper to run and safer than current wind turbines - it doesn't have large rotating blades that might be dangerous for humans or birds.
PowerWINDows is the culmination of four years of work and UOW has just signed an initial two-year deal with one of Australia's leading engineering companies, Birdon, to build a commercial viable prototype to enable more extensive testing and evaluation in the hope that the product may one day be brought into production.
Professor Safaei says he started this line of research to overcome some of the key shortcomings of current wind turbine technology, in particular, to enable modular manufacturing, easier transportation and installation, and reduce noise, as well as land usage footprint.
"I wanted to create a wind turbine that better integrated with living environments", he says, adding that the invention "looks like a window with a sparse venetian blind - the blades move vertically up and down." He says the invention can be easily blended into existing environments because of its window-like form, which can be painted to match buildings.
Director of Innovation & Commercialisation Research at UOW Elizabeth Eastland says in order to make the switch to renewable energy technologies, which will help cut greenhouse gas emissions and lessen the impact of fossil fuels shortages, we need to come up with innovative, but workable solutions."PowerWINDows has the potential to help us harvest wind energy in a much more effective way," she says. "We are pleased to have Birdon working with us to advance this technology."
Group General Manager of Birdon, Ian Ramsay, says he looks forward to working with UOW on this nationally important project. "We see this is an opportunity to apply our engineering expertise in the green energy area, and contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, whilst bringing to market a strong and viable commercial solution for the renewable energy sector."

In 2012, IDTechEx research finds that the amount of money spent on energy harvesters will be more than $0.7Bn, with several hundred developers involved throughout the value chain. Energy harvesting is the process by which ambient energy is captured and converted into electricity for small autonomous devices, such as satellites, laptops and nodes in sensor networks making them self-sufficient. Although energy harvesting applications reach from vehicles to the smart grid, the majority of the value this year is in consumer electronic applications, where energy harvesters have been used for some time.

Energy harvesting, otherwise known as power harvesting or energy scavenging includes photovoltaics, thermovoltaics, piezoelectrics and electrodynamics, among other options, which are now being used in a wide variety of applications. The technology has reached a tipping point, because the necessary lower power electronics and more efficient energy gathering and storage are now sufficiently affordable, reliable and longer lived for a huge number of applications to be practicable.
Global market total value millions of dollars
Source: IDTechEx
From wind-up laptops for Africa, wireless light switches working from the power of your finger and wireless sensors in oil fields monitoring equipment power by vibration - these are all in use now with many more applications emerging.
Market Segments using Energy Harvesting
This report covers the following market segments with detailed ten year forecasts of each:
Bicycle dynamo
Laptops, e-books
Mobile phones
Other portable consumer electronics - Calculators, toys, piezo gas lighters, electronic car keys, electronic apparel etc
Wireless sensor mesh networks
Other Industrial -Mainly buildings, machinery, engines, non-meshed wireless sensors and actuators
Military and aerospace excluding WSN
Healthcare - Implants, disposable testers and drug delivery etc
Other - Research, animals, farming etc
Consumer market total value by sector
Source: IDTechEx
Energy harvesting by technology type
This year, most of the harvesters used in the above market segments are solar cells followed by electrodynamos, two relatively mature energy harvesting technologies. However, many new technologies are now taking some market share enabling power in areas not possible before. This includes thermoelectrics - generating power from heat - where organisations such as the Department of Energy in the US are working with BMW and GM to turn heat waste from engines and exhaust into power for the vehicle's electrical systems. NASA use thermoelectrics to power Mars rovers where they work without light, unlike solar cells. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are also of great interest due to their small form factor and high efficiency. In 2022, these four energy harvester types will have near similar market share for industrial sensing applications. However, even by then solar will continue to dominate for consumer applications.
For the first time, this unique report looks at the global situation. It covers the progress of more than 350 organizations in 22 countries and gives detailed case studies. Market forecasts are provided for everything from self-sufficient wristwatches to mobile phones that will never need a charger and light switches and controls that have no wiring and no batteries when fitted in buildings to wireless sensors power from the environment they are placed in.
However, there are further mountains to climb in order to achieve self-powered wireless sensors monitoring forest fires, pollution spillages and even inside the human body and in the concrete of buildings. These applications will become commonplace one day. Even devices with maintenance-free life of hundreds of years can now be envisaged. Meanwhile, bionic man containing maintenance free, self-powered devices for his lifetime is an objective for the next few years. IDTechEx find that the total market for energy harvesting devices, including everything from wristwatches to wireless sensors will rise to over $5 billion in 2022.
How do these things work? Which technologies have the most potential now and in the future? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Which countries have the most active programs and why? What are the leading universities, developers, manufacturers and other players up to? What alliances exist? What are the timelines for success? All these questions and more are answered in this report.
Further information
If you have any questions about this report, please do not hesitate to contact our report team at or call Clare on +44 (0) 1223 813 703 for queries based in Europe or Raoul on +1 617 577 7890 for queries based in the UK, Americas or ROW.
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Table of Contents
1.1.Market forecast 2012-2022, 2032
2.1.What is energy harvesting?
2.2.What it is not
2.3.Energy harvesting compared with alternatives
2.4.Power requirements of different devices
2.5.Harvesting options to meet these requirements
2.6.Battery advances fail to keep up - implications
2.7.Some key enablers for the future - printed electronics, smart substrates, MEMS
2.7.1.Printed and thin film
2.7.2.Smart substrates
3.1.Aerospace and military
3.2.1.Standards - EnOcean Alliance vs ZigBee
3.2.2.Real Time Locating Systems
3.2.3.Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)
3.2.4.Aircraft, engines, automotive and machinery
3.3.1.Mobile phones, wristwatches, radio, lamps etc
3.3.2.E-Labels, E-Packaging, E-signage, E-posters
3.5.Third World
4.1.Harvesting tolerant electronics and direct use of power
4.1.1.Progress with harvesting tolerant electronics
4.2.New battery options
4.2.1.Smart Dust
4.2.2.Lithium laminar batteries
4.2.3.Planar Energy Devices
4.2.4.Cymbet Corporation - integrated battery management
4.2.5.Infinite Power Solutions
4.2.6.Transparent printed organic batteries
4.2.7.Biobatteries do their own harvesting
4.2.8.Battery that incorporates energy harvesting - FlexEl
4.2.9.Technion Israel Institute of Science
4.2.10.Need for shape standards for laminar batteries
4.3.Alternatives to batteries
4.3.2.Supercapacitors and Supercabatteries
4.3.4.Mini fuel cells
5.1.Comparison of options
5.1.1.Important parameters
5.1.2.Principles of operation
5.1.3.Options for the future
5.1.4.Many types of photovoltaics needed for harvesting
5.2.Limits of cSi and aSi technologies
5.3.Limits of CdTe
5.4.GaAsGe multilayers
5.8.Nanosilicon ink
5.10.Other options
5.10.1.Nanowire solar cells
6.1.Vibration harvesting
6.2.Movement harvesting options
6.2.1.Piezoelectric - conventional, ZnO and polymer
6.2.4.Energy harvesting electronics
6.3.Electroactive polymers
6.5.1.Generation of electricity
6.5.2.Harvesting from the human heart
6.5.3.Bridge monitoring
6.5.4.Wind up foetal heart rate monitor
7.1.1.Thermoelectric construction
7.1.2.Advantages of thermoelectrics
7.1.3.Automotive Thermoelectric Generation (ATEG)
7.1.4.Heat pumps
8.1.Electromagnetic field harnessing
8.2.Microbial and other fuel cells
8.3.Multiple energy harvesting
9.2.Advanced Cerametrics
9.3.Agency for Defense Development
9.4.AIST Tsukuba
9.5.Alabama A.&M. University
9.6.Alps Electric
9.7.Ambient Research
9.8.AmbioSystems LLC
9.9.Applied Digital Solutions
9.10.Argonne National Laboratory
9.11.Arizona State University
9.13.Australian National University - Department of Engineering
9.14.Avago Technologies General
9.15.BAE Systems
9.17.California Institute of Technology
9.18.California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory
9.19.California State University - Northridge
9.20.Cambrian Innovation (formerly IntAct)
9.21.Carnegie Mellon University
9.22.CEA (Atomic Energy Commission of France)
9.23.Chinese University of Hong Kong
9.24.Chungbuk National University
9.25.Citizen Holding Co Ltd
9.26.China National Space Administration
9.27.Clarkson University
9.28.Cymtox Ltd
9.29.Drexel University
9.30.East Japan Railway Company
9.31.EDF R&D
9.32.Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI)
9.33.Ember Corporation
9.34.Encrea srl
9.35.European Space Agency
9.37.Fast Trak Ltd
9.38.Fatih University
9.39.Ferro Solutions, Inc.
9.40.Fraunhofer Institut Integrierte Schaltungen
9.41.Freeplay Foundation
9.42.G24 Innovations
9.43.Ganssle Group
9.44.Gas Sensing Solution Ltd
9.45.General Electric Company
9.46.Georgia Institute of Technology
9.47.GreenPeak Technologies
9.48.Harvard University
9.49.High Merit Thermoelectrics
9.50.Hi-Tech Wealth
9.51.Holst Centre
9.53.Idaho National Laboratory
9.55.Imperial College
9.56.India Space Research Organisation
9.58.ITRI (Industrial Technology Research Institute)
9.59.Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
9.60.Kanazawa University
9.61.KCF Technologies Inc
9.62.Kinergi Pty Ltd
9.63.Kinetron BV
9.64.Kobe University
9.66.Kookmin University,
9.67.Korea Electronics Company
9.68.Korea Institute of Science and Technology
9.69.Korea University
9.70.Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
9.71.Lear Corporation
9.72.Lebônê Solutions
9.74.Lockheed Martin Corporation
9.75.LV Sensors, Inc.
9.76.Massachusetts Institute of Technology
9.78.Michigan Technological University
9.79.Microdul AG
9.80.Micropelt GmbH
9.82.MicroStrain Inc.
9.83.Midé Technology Corporation
9.84.MINIWIZ Sustainable Energy Dev. Ltd
9.85.Mitsubishi Corporation
9.86.Nanosonic Inc
9.88.National Physical Laboratory
9.89.National Semiconductor
9.90.National Taiwan University,
9.91.National Tsing Hua University
9.92.Network Rail Infrastructure Ltd
9.93.Newcastle University
9.95.Nokia Cambridge UK Research Centre
9.96.North Carolina State University
9.97.Northrop Grumman
9.98.Northeastern University
9.99.Northwestern University
9.100.Nova Mems
9.102.Oak Ridge National Laboratory
9.103.Ohio State University
9.104.Omron Corporation
9.105.Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
9.107.Pennsylvania State University
9.109.Perpetuum Ltd
9.110.Polatis Photonics
9.112.PowerFilm, Inc.
9.113.PulseSwitch Systems
9.114.Purdue University
9.115.Rockwell Automation
9.116.Rockwell Scientific
9.117.Rosemount, Inc.
9.118.Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,
9.120.Sandia National Laboratory
9.121.Satellite Services Ltd
9.122.Siemens Power Generation
9.123.Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna
9.125.SELEX Galileo
9.126.Sentilla Corporation
9.127.Shanghai Jiao Tong University
9.128.Simon Fraser University
9.129.Smart Material Corp.
9.132.Solid State Research inc
9.134.Southampton University Hospital
9.136.Spectrolab Inc
9.137.State University of New Jersey
9.138.Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
9.139.Syngenta Sensors UIC
9.140.Technical University of Ilmenau
9.141.Thermolife Energy Corporation
9.142.The Technology Partnership
9.143.TIMA Laboratory
9.144.Tokyo Institute of Technology
9.145.Trophos Energy
9.146.TRW Conekt
9.147.Tyndall National Institute
9.148.University of Berlin
9.149.University of Bristol
9.150.University of California Berkeley
9.151.University of California Los Angeles
9.152.University of Edinburgh
9.153.University of Florida
9.154.University of Freiburg - IMTEK
9.155.University of Idaho
9.156.University of Michigan
9.157.University of Neuchatel
9.158.University of Oxford
9.159.University of Pittsburgh
9.160.University of Princeton
9.161.University of Sheffield
9.162.University of Southampton
9.163.University of Tokyo
9.164.Uppsala University
9.165.US Army Research Laboratory
9.166.Virginia Tech
9.167.Voltaic Systems Inc
9.168.Washington State University
9.169.Wireless Industrial Technologies
9.170.Yale University,
9.171.Yonsei University,
9.172.ZMD AG
10.1.1.BSC Computer GmbH - Germany
10.1.2.EnOcean -Germany
10.1.3.Leviton - United States
10.1.4.Masco - United States
10.1.5.MK Electric (a Honeywell Business) - United Kingdom
10.1.6.Omnio - Switzerland
10.1.7.OPUS greenNet - Germany
10.1.8.Texas Instruments - United States
10.1.9.Thermokon Sensortechnik - Germany
10.2.1.ACTE .PL
10.2.2.Ad Hoc Electronics - United States
10.2.3.Atlas Group
10.2.4.b.a.b technologie GmbH - Germany
10.2.5.Beckhoff - Germany
10.2.6.bk-electronic GmbH
10.2.7.BootUp GmbH - Switzerland
10.2.8.BSC Computer GmbH
10.2.9.Cozir - United Kindom
10.2.10.Denro - Germany
10.2.11.Distech Controls - Canada
10.2.13.EchoFlex Solutions
10.2.15.Elsner Elektronik - Germany
10.2.16.Eltako GmbH
10.2.17.Emerge Alliance
10.2.18.Ex-Or - United Kindom
10.2.19.Funk Technik - Germany
10.2.20.GE Energy - United States
10.2.21.GFR - Germany
10.2.22.Hansgrohe Group - Germany
10.2.23.Hautau - Germany
10.2.24.HESCH - Germany
10.2.25.Hoppe - Germany
10.2.26.Hotel Technology Next Generation - United States
10.2.27.IK Elektronik GmbH - Germany
10.2.28.ILLUMRA - United States
10.2.29.INSYS Electronics
10.2.30.Intesis Software SL - Spain
10.2.31.IP Controls - Germany
10.2.32.Jager Direkt GmbH & Co
10.2.33.Kieback&Peter GmbH & Co. KG - Germany
10.2.34.LonMark International
10.2.35.Lutuo - China
10.2.36.Magnum Energy Solutions LLC - United States
10.2.37.Murata Europe - Germany
10.2.39.Osram Silvania
10.2.40.OVERKIZ - Germany
10.2.42.PEHA - Germany
10.2.45.Reliable Controls - Canada
10.2.46.S+S Regeltechnik
10.2.47.S4 Group - United States
10.2.49.Schulte Elektrotechnik GmbH & Co. KG
10.2.50.SCL Elements Inc - Canada
10.2.51.SensorDynamics AG
10.2.52.Servodan A/S
10.2.53.Shaspa - United Kingdom
10.2.54.Siemens Building Technologies - Switzerland
10.2.55.Siemens Building Technologies GmbH & Co
10.2.56.SmartHome Initiative - Germany
10.2.57.SOMMER - Germany
10.2.58.Spartan Peripheral Devices - Canada
10.2.59.Spega - Germany
10.2.60.steute Schaltgeräte GmbH & Co. KG
10.2.61.Texas Instruments
10.2.62.Titus - United States
10.2.63.Unitronic AG Zentrale - Germany
10.2.64.Unotech A/S - Denmark
10.2.65.USNAP - United States
10.2.66.Vicos - Austria
10.2.67.Viessmann Group - Germany
10.2.68.Vossloh-Schwabe - Germany
10.2.69.WAGO Kontakttechnik GmbH & Co. KG - Germany
10.2.70.Wieland Electric GmbH - Germany
10.2.71.YTL Technologies - China
10.2.72.Zumtobel Lighting GmbH - Austria
10.3.1.A. & H. MEYER GmbH - Germany
10.3.2.ABC Shop 24 - Germany
10.3.3.Active Business Company GmbH
10.3.4.Akktor GmbH - Germany
10.3.5.Alvi Technologies
10.3.6.ASP Automação - Brazil
10.3.7.Axis Lighting - Canada
10.3.8.Biberach University of Applied Sciences
10.3.9.bmd AG -Switzerland
10.3.10.BMS Systems
10.3.11.Building Intelligence Group LLC - United States
10.3.12.CAO Group, Inc. - United States
10.3.13.Circuit Holding - Egypt
10.3.14.Com-Pacte - France
10.3.15.Cymbet - United States
10.3.16.Dauphin - Germany
10.3.17.DigiTower Cologne
10.3.18.DimOnOff - Canada
10.3.19.Distech Controls
10.3.20.Dogma Living Technology - Greece
10.3.21.Elektro-Systeme Matthias Friedl - Germany
10.3.22.Elka Hugo Krischke GmbH - Germany
10.3.23.Encelium Technologies - United States
10.3.24.Energie Agentur
10.3.25.enexoma AG - Germany
10.3.26.Engenuity Systems
10.3.27.Engenuity Systems - United States
10.3.28.Engineered Tax Services - United States
10.3.29.EnOcean GmbH
10.3.30.Enolzu - Spain
10.3.31.Enotech - Denmark
10.3.32.ESIC Technology & Sourcing Co., Ltd.
10.3.33.Functional Devices Inc. - United States
10.3.35.Green Link Alliance
10.3.36.Gruppo Giordano - Italian
10.3.37.Hagemeyer - Germany
10.3.38.HBC Hochschule Biberach - Germany
10.3.39.Herbert Waldmann GmbH & Co. KG - Germany
10.3.40.Hermos - Germany
10.3.41.HK Instruments - Finland
10.3.42.Hochschule Luzern - Technik & Architektur - Switzerland
10.3.43.I.M. tecnics - Spain
10.3.44.Indie Energy - United States
10.3.45.Infinite Power Solutions, Inc. - United States
10.3.46.Ingenieurbüro Knab GmbH - Germany
10.3.47.Ingenieurbüro Zink GmbH
10.3.48.Ingenieurbüro Zink GmbH - Germany
10.3.49.INGLAS Innovative Glassysteme GmbH & Co. KG
10.3.50.Interior Automation - United Kingdom
10.3.51.Ivory Egg - United Kingdom
10.3.52.Kaga Electronics - Japan
10.3.53.KIB Projekt GmbH
10.3.54.Korea Electronics Technology Institute (KETI) - Korea
10.3.55.KVL Comp Ltd.
10.3.56.Ledalite - Canada
10.3.57.LessWire, LLC
10.3.58.Lighting Control & Design - United States
10.3.59.LogiCO2 International SARL. - Luxembourg
10.3.61.Mitsubishi Materials Corporation - United States
10.3.62.MK Electric (a Honeywell Business)
10.3.63.MONDIAL Electronic GmbH - Austria
10.3.64.Moritani - Japan
10.3.65.Moritani and Co Ltd
10.3.66.MW-Elektroanlagen - Germany
10.3.67.myDATA - Germany
10.3.68.Nibblewave - France
10.3.69.OBERMEYER Planen + Beraten GmbH - Germany
10.3.71.Orkit Building Intelligence
10.3.72.Pohlmann Funkbussystems - Germany
10.3.73.PressFinish GmbH - Germany
10.3.74.Prulite Ltd - United States
10.3.75.Pyrecap - France
10.3.77.R+S Group - Germany
10.3.78.SANYO Semiconductor LLC. - United States
10.3.79.SAT Herbert GmbH
10.3.80.SAT System- und Anlagentechnik Herbert GmbH
10.3.81.Seamless Sensing - United Kingdom
10.3.82.Selmoni - Switzerland
10.3.83.Sensocasa - Germany
10.3.84.Seven Line Control Systems - France
10.3.85.SIFRI, S.L. - Spain
10.3.86.SmartLiving Asia - Hong Kong
10.3.87.Spittler Lichttechnik GmbH - Germany
10.3.88.Spoon2 International Limited - United Kingdom
10.3.89.Steinbeis Transferzentrum für Embedded Design und Networking
10.3.90.StyliQ - Germany
10.3.91.STZEDN - Germany
10.3.92.Suffice Group - Hong Kong
10.3.94.Tambient - United States
10.3.95.Technograph Microcircuits Ltd
10.3.96.Teleprofi-Verbindet - Germany
10.3.97.Thermokon - Danelko Elektronik AB - Sweden
10.3.98.ThermoKon Sensortechnik
10.3.99.t-mac Technologies Limited - United Kingdom
10.3.100.Tridum - United States
10.3.101.TRILUX GmbH & Co. KG - Germany
10.3.102.Unitronic AG Zentrale
10.3.104.Vity Technology - Hong Kong
10.3.105.WAGO Kontakttechnik GmbH & Co. KG
10.3.106.WeberHaus - Germany
10.3.107.Web-IT - Germany
10.3.108.WelComm - United States
10.3.109.Wieland Electric GmbH
10.3.110.WIT - France
10.3.111.WM Ocean - Czech Republic
10.3.112.Yongfu - Singapore
10.3.113.Zurich University of Applied Science (ZHAW) - Switzerland
11.1.Forecasts for energy harvesting markets
11.1.1.Addressable markets and price sensitivity
11.1.2.IDTechEx energy harvesting forecasts 2012-2022, 2032
11.1.3.Timeline for widespread deployment of energy harvesting
11.1.4.Which technologies win?
11.2.Wireless sensor networks 2010-2022
11.3.IDTechEx forecast for 2032
11.4.Bicycle dynamo market
1.1.Global market for energy harvesting 2012-2022
1.2.Consumer market for energy harvesting 2012-2022
1.3.Industrial, healthcare and other non- consumer markets for energy harvesting 2012-2022
1.5.Bicycle dynamo
1.6.Laptops and e-books
1.7.Mobile phones
1.8.Wireless sensor mesh networks
1.9.Other Industrial^
1.10.Military and aerospace+ excluding WSN
1.13.Consumer vs other market value by technology 2022
1.14.Consumer market value in $ million by application and technology 2022
1.15.Non-consumer market in $ million by application and technology in 2022
1.16.Examples of the primary motivation to use energy harvesting by type of device
1.17.Microsensor power budget
1.18.Power density provided by different forms of energy harvesting
1.19.Some highlights of global effort on energy harvesting
1.20.Some types of energy to harvest with examples of harvesting technology, applications, developers and suppliers
1.21.Percentage of presentations and programs by energy harvesting technology showing increasing emphasis on piezoelectric motion harvesting 2008-2009
1.22.Efficiency and potential technology options
1.23.Timeline for widespread deployment of energy harvesting
2.1.Energy harvesting compared with alternatives
5.1.Comparison of pn junction and electrophotochemical photovoltaics.
5.2.The main options for photovoltaics beyond conventional silicon compared
5.3.CdTe cost advantage
5.4.Efficiency of laminar organic photovoltaics and DSSC
11.1.Some high volume addressable global markets for energy harvesting for small devices
11.2.Ambient power available for volume markets
11.3.Addressable market for high priced energy harvesting
11.4.Electronic products selling in billions yearly and their pricing
11.5.Global market for energy harvesting 2012-2022
11.6.Consumer market for energy harvesting 2012-2022
11.7.Industrial, healthcare and other non- consumer markets for energy harvesting 2012-2022
11.9.Bicycle dynamo
11.10.Laptops and e-books
11.11.Mobile phones
11.12.Other portable consumer electronics~
11.13.Wireless sensor mesh networks
11.14.Other Industrial^
11.15.Military and aerospace+ excluding WSN
11.18.Consumer vs other market value by technology 2022
11.19.Consumer market value in $ million by application and technology 2022
11.20.Non-consumer market in $ million by application and technology in 2022
11.21.IDTechEx forecast of market % value share of total photovoltaic market by technology excluding conventional crystalline silicon 2012-2022
11.22.Timeline for widespread deployment of energy harvesting
11.23.Division of value sales between the technologies in 2021
11.24.Percentage value share of the global market for energy harvesting across large areas such as vehicles and railway stations (eg regenerative braking, shock absorbers, exhaust heat) in 2021
11.25.IDTechEx Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) Forecast 2010-2022 with Real Time Locating Systems RTLS for comparison
11.26.WSN and ZigBee node numbers million 2012, 2022, 2032 and market drivers
11.27.Average number of nodes per system 2012, 2022, 2032
11.28.WSN node price dollars 2012, 2022, 2032 and cost reduction factors
11.29.WSN node total value $ million 2012, 2022, 2032
11.30.WSN systems and software excluding nodes $ million 2012, 2022, 2032
11.31.Total WSN market value $ million 2012, 2022, 2032
1.1.Global market number million
1.2.Global market unit value dollars
1.3.Global market total value millions of dollars
1.4.Consumer market number million
1.5.Consumer market unit value dollars
1.6.Consumer market total value millions of dollars
1.7.Industrial, healthcare and other non-consumer markets number million
1.8.Industrial, healthcare and other non-consumer markets unit value dollars
1.9.Industrial, healthcare and other non-consumer markets total value millions of dollars
1.10.Other portable consumer electronics~
1.11.Consumer market number by sector
1.12.Consumer market total value by sector
1.13.Consumer market value by technology 2022
1.14.Non-consumer market value by technology 2022
1.15.Total market value by technology 2022
1.16.Konarka vision of ubiquitous energy harvesting
1.17.Power requirements of small electronic products including Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and GSM mobile phones and the types of battery employed
1.18.Comparison of the power density ranges of different energy technologies
1.19.The performance of the favourite energy harvesting technologies. Technologies with no moving parts are shown in red.
1.20.Profiled energy harvesting organisations by continent
1.21.Profiled organisations active in energy harvesting by country, numbers rounded
1.22.Rapid progress in the capabilities of small electronic devices and their photovoltaic energy harvesting contrasted with poor progress in improving the batteries they employ
1.23.Number of cases by type of harvesting as identified in IDTechEx survey of 200 participants
2.1.Power requirements of small electronic products including Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and the types of battery employed
2.2.Ten year improvement in electronics, photovoltaics and batteries
3.1.Temperature monitoring on high speed trains
3.2.Huge number of potential WSN applications in the SNCF system
3.3.Evolution of a few of the feasible features for e-labels and e-packaging
4.1.Battery assisted passive RFID label recording time-temperature profile of food, blood etc in transit
4.2.Smart Dust WSN node concept with thick film battery and solar cells
4.3.New Planar Energy Devices high capacity laminar battery
4.4.World's first thin-film battery with integrated battery management
4.5.THINERGY MEC200 series micro-energy cells
4.6.Flexible battery that charges in one minute
4.7.Comparison of an electrostatic capacitor, an electrolytic capacitor and an EDLC
4.8.Comparison of an EDLC with an asymmetric supercapacitor sometimes painfully called a bacitor or supercabattery
5.1.NREL adjudication of efficiencies under standard conditions
5.2.International Space Station
5.3.Number of organisations developing printed and potentially printed electronics worldwide
5.4.Some candidates for the different photovoltaic requirements
5.5.Spectrolab roadmap for multilayer cells
5.6.DSSC design principle
5.7.HRTEM plane view BF image of germanium quantum dots in titania matrix
5.8.The CIGS flexible photovoltaics of Odersun AG of Germany is used for energy harvesting to mobile phones on the bag of Bagjack of Germany
5.9.CIGS construction
5.10.The CIGS panels from Global Solar Energy
5.11.Wide web organic photovoltaic production line of Konarka announced late 2008
5.12.Operating principle of a popular form of organic photovoltaics
5.13.Module stack for photovoltaics
5.14.INL nantennas on film
5.15.Nanowire solar cells left by Canadian researchers and right by Konarka in the USA
6.1.Power paving
6.2.Microscope image shows the fibers that are part of the microfiber nanogenerator. The top one is coated with gold
6.3.Schematic shows how pairs of fibers would generate electrical current.
6.4.Piezo eel
6.5.Capacitive biomimetic energy harvesting
6.6.Midé energy harvesting electronics
6.7.Artificial Muscle business plan
6.8.Artificial Muscle's actuator
6.9.MEMS by a dust mite that is less than one millimeter across
6.10.Examples of electrodynamic harvesting
6.11.Heart harvester
7.1.The thermoelectric materials with highest figure of merit
7.2.Operating principle of the Seiko Thermic wristwatch
7.3.The thermoelectric device in the Seiko Thermic watch with 104 elements each measuring 80X80X600 micrometers
9.1.Profiled organisations by continent
9.2.Profiled organisations by country
9.3.Number in sample by intended sector of end use
9.4.Number of cases by type of harvesting
9.5.Transparent photovoltaic film
9.6.Arveni piezoelectric batteryless remote control
9.7.CNSA moon orbiting satellite with solar cells
9.8.Solar powered ESA satellites
9.9.Electrical lanterns, torches etc charged by hand cranking
9.10.Freeplay wind up radio in Africa
9.11.Solar sail
9.12.Light in Africa
9.13.Hi-Tech Wealth's S116 clamshell solar phone
9.15.Bulk nantennas
9.16.Human sensor networks
9.17.ISRO moon satellite
9.18.JAXA moon project
9.19."Ibuki" GOSAT greenhouse gas monitoring satellite
9.20.KCF Harvesting Sensor Demonstration Pack
9.21.Flux density of a microgenerator
9.22.3D drawing of the Pedal Light
9.23.WSN deployment
9.24.Micropelt thermoelectric harvester in action
9.25.Microsemi's ISM RF I
9.26.Z-Star WSN Evaluation Kit Using ZL70250
9.27.Wireless ECG sensor node
9.28.ULP Wireless Accelerometer Reference Design
9.29.ISM band radio in energy harvesting application
9.30.Helicopter vibration harvester
9.31.Bell model 412 helicopter
9.32.Solar-powered wireless G-Link seismic sensor on the Corinth Bridge in Greece.
9.33.Multiple solar-powered nodes monitor strain and vibration at key locations on the Goldstar Bridge over the Thames River in New London, Conn
9.34.MicroStrain Wireless sensor and data acquisition system
9.35.Volture vibration harvester
9.36.Another version of Volture
9.37.International Space Station
9.38.Solar panels for the Hubble telescope
9.39.Schematic representations of a PN-couple used as TEC (left) based on the Peltier effect or TEG (right) based on the Seebeck effect.
9.40.Nextreme thermoelectric generator
9.41.eTEC Module and Die
9.42.Morph concept
9.43.Flexible & Changing Design
9.44.Concept device based on reduce, reuse recycle envisages many forms of energy harvesting
9.45.Carrying strap provides power to the sensor unit
9.46.An optical image of an electronic device in a complex deformation mode
9.47.NTT DOCOMO concept phone with energy harvesting
9.48.Pavegen Systems Limited is looking for ways to tap into the energy of moving crowds
9.49.Heart energy harvesting
9.50.Perpetuum vibration harvester
9.51.PowerFilm literature
9.52.PulseSwitch Systems makes piezoelectric wireless switches that do not need a battery
9.53.Seiko Thermic wristwatch
9.54.Knee-Mounted Device Generates Electricity While You Walk
9.55.SolarPrint Beta Power management solution
9.56.Power output vs. Lux Level for a-Si andDSSC
9.57.Light Levels in a typical office.
9.58.Tissot Autoquartz
9.59.Heart harvester developed at Southampton University Hospital
9.60.Compromise between power density and energy density
9.61.Thin film batteries with supercapacitors were efficient for energy storage
9.62.Two other battery formats
9.63.Syngenta sensor
9.64.Trophos BES Power Management & Application Architecture
9.65.Transmitter left and implanted receiver right for inductively powered implantable dropped foot stimulator for stroke victims
9.66.PicoBeacon, the first fully self-contained wireless transmitter powered solely by solar energy
9.67.Surveillance bat
9.68.Sensor head on COM-BAT
9.69.A solar bag that is powerful enough to charge a laptop
10.1.Self-powered Wireless Sensor Technology from EnOcean
10.2.Solar powered wireless sensor node
10.3.Sensor monitoring rock net using energy of net movement and solar cells
11.1.Energy harvesting for small devices, renewable energy replacing power stations and what comes between.
11.2.Global market number million
11.3.Global market unit value dollars
11.4.Global market total value millions of dollars
11.5.Consumer market number million
11.6.Consumer market unit value dollars
11.7.Consumer market total value millions of dollars
11.8.Industrial, healthcare and other non-consumer markets number million
11.9.Industrial, healthcare and other non-consumer markets unit value dollars
11.10.Industrial, healthcare and other non-consumer markets total value millions of dollars
11.11.Consumer market number by sector
11.12.Consumer market total value by sector
11.13.Consumer market value by technology 2022
11.14.Non-consumer market value by technology 2022
11.15.Total market value by technology 2022
11.16.Meter reading nodes number million 2010-2022
11.17.Meter reading nodes unit value dollars 2010-2022
11.18.Meter reading nodes total value dollars 2010-2022
11.19.Other nodes number million 2010-2022
11.20.Other nodes unit value dollars 2010-2022
11.21.Other nodes total value dollars 2010-2022
11.22.Total node value billion dollars 2010-2022
11.23.WSN systems and software excluding nodes billion dollars 2010-2022
11.24.Total WSN market million dollars 2010-2022
11.25.WSN and ZigBee node numbers million 2012, 2022, 2032
11.26.Average number of nodes per system 2012, 2022, 2032
11.27.WSN node price dollars 2012, 2022, 2032
11.28.WSN node total value $ million 2012, 2022, 2032
11.29.WSN systems and software excluding nodes $ million 2012, 2022, 2032
11.30.Total WSN market value $ million 2012, 2022, 2032
11.31.Global bicycle and car production millions