Sunday, March 24, 2013

Wind Farm


March 2013




This summary provides an overview of the findings of the Impact Assessment Social and Environmental (ESIA) conducted for the construction and operation of a wind farm with a capacity of 1000MW / h, south of Mangalia, Constanta county, Romania by Green Energy Foundation and Green Energy Holding.
This summary has been prepared to provide a brief overview of social impact assessment study and environmental-occupational.

2.1 Locating a farm and Design

The wind farm will be located near Mangalia town, Constanta county, 17 km west of the Black Sea coast. (Shown in the following figure)
The park will include 1,000 wind turbines, connected by underground cables to a new power station, located on site, which in turn will be connected by underground power lines than one central power station, located throughout the inside. Will be built about 15 kilometers of road.
In the project area there are no human settlements. Turbines are placed at a distance of approximately 40 m from each other, we consider two parallel rows of turbines at 40 m distance between them.


The wind farm will consist of 1,000 turbines, each with a capacity of
1MW, with a maximum total capacitance for the entire wind farm of up to 1000MW. Each turbine includes, for the tip, a tower with a housing containing electrical generator turbine, gearbox and rotor transformer. Total height of the turbine is 70 or 80 m, rotor shaft is connected to the rotor blades with a diameter of 25m. Dunt horizontal blades. Each turbine will be placed on a small cement foundation, permanent, with a maximum diameter of 4m.
Access to the turbine is made only from European road E 87, doorways and roads that we build. All park will be bordered by metal fence. Park area will serve only to produce electricity. Inside the park will not use any plot to agrigulture or other destinations, so there is no risk of breaking underground networks agricole campaigns, plowing or other operations.
The turbines will be connected to a power supply. Power station will be connected to the high voltage network.

3.1 The construction of annexes and delimiting the perimeter

The project will be executed by ourselves, GREEN ENERGY HOLDING under professional guidance of GREEN ENERGY FOUNDATION. Therefor we divided the workforce into 3 teams:
1.Since the last months of 2013 will begin restricting land by a metal fence and construction of 15 km of industrial road,
2.The second team will build office building,
3.The third team will build a repair shop and an electric testing laboratory.

3.2 The ground installation of the turbines.

Turbines installation will be done on ourself, GREEN ENERGY HOLDING under professional guidance of GREEN ENERGY FOUNDATION. Technical team will do burying power lines, substations construction of foundations, paving and restoration of temporary. Delivery of equipment and materials, electrical work, installation of turbines, commissioning documentation Construction Permit (Technical project, details of execution and management plans) will be developed before construction starts. Construction will be reviewed by the State Construction Inspectorate - Constanta County Inspectorate for Constructions.

3.3 Traffic

Construction will be associated with increased traffic, both with heavy equipment (trucks and construction equipment) and motor vehicles for the carriage of passengers for movement of construction personnel on site. During peak construction, might as daily on-site visits to be dozens of additional trucks and cars, with maybe 10-15 trips per hour
peak. Trucks include:
·        Vehicles restricted (VAR) with a length of 19 m or greater tonnage of 42.5 tons, which will be used to transport wind turbine components;
·        Semi-trailers used to transport platforms installed foundation formwork, steel reinforced foundations, transformer substation of 100 MW power project, various electrical substation equipment to the Project;
·        Mixers.

3.4 Human Resources

During construction, on average, will be employed about 275-300 people, although this number could increase to 400. Between these jobs have provided and the following:
ORGANIZATION SUMMARY  for the first two years of the project:

Name Post / Number of individual labor contracts:
Unskilled workers:175
Team leaders:20
Mechanics and drivers (for equipment):60
TESA: 8-9
Total approximately 272 or 273 employees
After two years in which we will reach the final form of the Green Energy Park, we again employ staff as follows:
·        Each turbine will enter the review twice a year, excluding wear on operating parameters. Each review lasts up to 10 days. A single arithmetic concludes that only maintenance required turbines 20,000 days of work annually. Such calendar year is approximately 250 days, we are required from the start to employ at least 1,000 only for maintenance.
·        50 people will deal with electronic monitoring and repairs of plant and Green Energy Foundation will provide continuous training of such personnel in charge.
·        150 people will be employed to guard
·        150 firefighters will be hired
·        10 people will be employed in the medical field also
·        100 drivers and crane operators will find job in Green Energy Project
·        5 maids
·        5 receptionists, etc..
3.5 Authorisations

Construction of the wind farm will attain a number of approvals and permits. These include:
·        Urbanism Certificate (UC), Urban Plan (PUZ) and Urban Area Plan. Planning for windfarm certificate will be issued by the City of Mangalia;
·        Agreement on the Environment by Environmental Protection Agency Constanta;
·        Building permit. Once released, it will be valid for two years, just maximum period required to finish the wind farm;
Operating license, which will submit documentation to obtain approval upon completion of construction;
Technical connection approval (ATR) for power lines, for which it will seek approval when will obtain the building permit.

3.6 Public Consultations

A public meeting to discuss documentation Urban Plan (PUZ) to be held at City Hall Mangalia, which will be made public with a useful period of time before the meeting by advertisement in a newspaper of wide circulation and by posting the Hall bulletin board Mangalia.

3.7 Land Acquisition

Landowners are properly paid after the sale-purchase contracts.
Nobody will have to relocate.
Transactions are being negotiated.


4.1 Introduction

The EIA report assesses the impact forms for all phases Wind Park Project during construction, operation and shutdown.
These impacts are summarized below. Where mitigation measures are proposed to highlight the adverse impacts or environmental benefits, they are referred to as key points.

4.2 Soils

Soils belonging Green Energy Project site are fertile, but are negatively impacted by erosion and exacerbated by the dry climate. There is no evidence of any form of soil contamination on the project site. Soil compaction due to movement of heavy vehicles and machinery during the construction period will be reduced by implementing best practices for handling soil, including segregation and refilling excavated topsoil and subsoil. Plan Accidental Pollution Prevention and Control will be implemented to reduce the risk of soil contamination during construction phase, including starage fuel tanks and enclosed area and secure storage on impervious waste and implementing strict procedures for refueling.
Erosion during construction will be reduced by implementing a water management plan and erosion control. This will include topsoil storage for later use, limiting areas temporarily affected during construction, install temporary erosion control measures to limit water leaks (such as berms and other facilities for silt retention) and temporary restoration of immediately after completion of the construction.
Therefore, no significant impacts are anticipated during construction. During the operational phase equipment maintenance will be consistent with the Plan for Prevention and Control of Pollution accidents will be developed during the operational phase. The transformers will be placed in boreholes to control any potential spills or dispersions.
Mention that throughout the whole project agriculture land will become industrial land. We undertake, at the end of the project to render it to agriculture, but during the project in the park Green Energy we deal exclusively with clean electricity production, not agriculture.

4.3 Water Resources

Bottled water stored in tanks or will be used to provide the necessary in early construction phase.
During the operational phase, the wind farm will need water leaks and will not be registered on the site except site pooling on the surface of the paved areas (including access roads, the platforms on pedestal cranes and turbines). For this, we conclude contract for water supply and sewerage services. Green Energy Park will be connected to the water supply and sewerage of the city of Mangalia. Thus, we eliminate pooling, which are small anyway, there will be no significant impacts on the rate of leakage or natural hydrographic network during operation of the wind farm.

4.4 Biodiversity

4.4.1 Avifauna

Via Pontica migration corridor of birds is at a distance of 5km, so it does not require special problem. It will use ultrasound equipment to protect birds.

4.4.2 Chiroptera

Monitoring bat species will be done in operational phase to assess the actual impact on bats and to determine the need to implement additional measures to mitigate the impact on the species. From studies so far, it is  shown that the area would not be populated with bat species, but we will continue monitoring after project start.

4.4.3 Other elements of flora and fauna

The wind farm is not located near reservations sites or other places with considerable biodiversity.
Wildlife monitoring studies have identified the following species considered important European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) and steppe lizard (Podarcis taurica) and dragon – a snake (Coluber (Dolichophis) caspius). A number of other studies will be conducted before construction begins to identify any elements of rare flora and fauna in areas that will be affected and they will be used to plan appropriate measures to mitigate impacts for each site separately. This could involve, for example, relocation of animals or change position slightly to avoid dens existing turbines and schedule construction paired off periods / nesting, whether these measures will be needed to protect important species.
From the information we have, in the park there could be species to be removed and relocated to start constructions. From our estimates, rabbits could live inside the farm, but we don’t want to change their biorhythm. That's why we take care to relocate them near.
As wild boar migration from Bulgaria to the north, we mention that we took into account the exact location of Green Energy farm in their migration corridor. For this we decided to close perimeter fence so that there is no trouble.
Any land suffered temporary impacts during construction works will be restored and revegetated.
Will acquire and use temporary special ultrasound equipment to remove animals that can suffer.

4.5 Elements of landscape and visual impact

We performed a visual impact assessment and landscape to the presence of turbines and its elements are given below. This evaluation was conducted in accordance with the best practices in landscape and visual impact assessment. In general, the evaluation concluded that the impact generated landscape and visual perception issues will be low or moderate to low (which implies that it is not expected to create significant adverse impacts).
Developers will assist in reducing the impact on the landscape and visual perspectives in:
·        Design of new access routes to follow, as far as possible the natural contours of the land;
·        Reducing the need for immediate restoration of vegetation removed and temporary work areas;
·        Limiting turbine installation at the appropriate indicators for labor protection and placing them on doorways turbine. Placing advertising materials and logos turbines shall be permitted;
·        Distant turbines and any above ground structures at the end of the wind farm operational.
·        The turbines will be located in two parallel linear arrays, the same distance. This will create an image of order. Between the two rows of turbines will be highway access, modern, parallel and equidistant to the two rows of turbines.
As requested by the Romanian Civil Aeronautical Authority, wind towers, spindles and blades will be painted white and the towers will be equipped with exterior lights.

4.6 Air Quality

There will be no significant increases in air pollution generated during construction and operation phases of the Project. During the construction phase, air emissions will consist of dust generated from construction activities / rehabilitation (excavation, movement of construction equipment) and emissions from combustion from vehicles and construction equipment at the site. During the construction / rehabilitation will apply dust control measures and no significant adverse impacts are expected dust generated.
Emissions from construction equipment and vehicles will be small scale and temporary and will be minimized by ensuring appropriate equipment. Therefore, no significant impacts are expected to do so.
During operation, there will be no significant air emissions because they will be limited to occasional traffic and maintenance activities.
In addition, each unit of electricity coming from wind energy Project GREEN ENERGY FOR ROMANIA replace one unit of electricity generated by other means, including fossil fuels. Therefore, the wind farm development contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants generated by producing electricity from conventional fossil fuels (mainly sulfur and nitrogen oxides). It is estimated that the project operation GREEN ENERGY FOR ROMANIA will cause a reduction of over 800 000 tonnes of emissions of harmful gases every year, if the generation of electricity by wind power plant is compared with electricity generation using current mixture consists mainly of fossil fuels used to generate electricity in Romania

4.7 Waste

Waste generated during construction will consist mainly of basement rocks and other inert construction materials such as concrete and garbage.
Project developers will reduce waste generation and will reuse, recycle or recover waste as possible, using approved recycling facilities.
Topsoil will be stored and then reused to restore some areas after completion of construction activities. Excess subsoil, rocks, other inert waste and non-recyclable solid waste will be disposed at municipal waste place. Small quantities of hazardous waste (paints, oils, etc.) will be taken over by a company authorized waste collection.
All waste activities will be conducted in accordance with Waste Management Plan and no significant adverse effects are expected to do so.
Amount of waste generated during operation will be very low and will come especially from maintenance operations. To remove any doubt, we conclude from home sanitation contract.

4.8 Noise and Vibration

During construction and operation phases will generate noise. during construction, noise will be generated by the plant and equipment (excavators, bulldozers, cranes, generators, etc.) and vehicles (trucks ready concrete mixer, construction machinery and cargo, including heavy transport equipment).
Contractors shall notify nearby residents and authorities held before major construction activities that could generate disturbing noise levels (eg turbine building nearby, the heaviest traffic periods).
Machines impacts generated by construction and equipment will be temporary and will be limited to small areas of the site at any time Project GREEN ENERGY FOR ROMANIA.
No construction work will occur at night, but they may occasionally work on weekends to run.
Much of the traffic generated by construction of the Project will be on the European road E 87, which is a highly traveled main road. Additional noise produced during construction phases will not therefore be a cause to concern. Noise from wind turbines during operation, the most nearby houses were analyzed in the Environmental Impact Assessment and Cumulative Impacts Assessment. Cumulative impacts assessment concluded that noise levels will be within acceptable limits. Will develop mitigation measures under the law (STAS 10.009/1988 and Order no. 1028/2004) or levels recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) through the 'Guidelines for Community Noise' and night noise guidelines for Europe ' . Mitigation measures could include installation of screens / protective barriers, agreed with locals Adjusting turbines and other such measures. It is important to note that weather and other conditions (rain, wind, etc.) affects the direction and distance at which sound can be heard. During the operational phase, developers, at the request of local residents, will measure noise levels in homes near the turbines and implement additional mitigation measures, where you will need to ensure that noise is within the limits allowed by law.

4.9 Traffic and transport

For all phases of project-specific traffic construction phase will be on the road E 87 and our new acces way. In peak periods of construction, through a single point could go up to 20-25 vehicles per hour. It will develop a traffic management plan will include an assessment of traffic impacts and health risks, along with appropriate measures to mitigate impacts, such as installing signs and security, to ensure that control measures are ruduction and maintain risk at an acceptable level.
The final route will be discussed and agreed in consultation with the Constanta County Council and the National Company of Motorways and National Roads before construction starts.
The project will generate very little traffic during the operation, with no significant impacts.

4.10 The use of land

As mentioned in Section 2.2, all of the total area of ​​the park will be bought. Sole purpose of the acquisition will be producing electricity only.

4.11 Employment opportunities and other economic benefits

As mentioned in Section 3.3, during construction, will create a significant number of temporary employment opportunities (2 years). It will also create, during operation, a big number of jobs of a permanent character (probably 2,000 of which 1,500 will be in charge of monitoring and repairs and maintenance of plant turbines and Green Energy Foundation will provide continuous training of such staff for free). Development companies will help in the recruitment and retention of local employment in these jobs by providing realistic information on employment opportunities, making publicly known vacancies and providing training courses for permanent positions. We will keep in touch with A.J.O.F.M. Constancy and technical high schools in the county.
Purchase local goods and services during the construction and operational periods will have a positive impact on the local economy. In addition, GREEN ENERGY Foundation will pay annual taxes to Mangalia city budget throughout the project life cycle, which is expected to be at least 50 years.
Please note that the largest nearby town has 40,000 inhabitants and we provide 2,000 jobs.

4.12 Social Impacts

Social impacts are expected during construction period is negligible.
Local workers will already have housing in neighboring localities and remaining workers will be easier accommodation in a hotel in the area was bought to be modernized and equipped with all necessary facilities.
Other workers who do not have accommodation provided we facilitate relocation by providing partial salary advances and settlement of rent. We do not agree module housing and we will never use.
All employees will be required to adhere to a strict code of conduct that prohibits disturbing people nearby. It will set up and implement procedures to determine appropriate behavior of security personnel from other members of the local population.

4.13 Cultural Heritage

Project area were identified historical or archaeological sites.
Therefore no significant impacts are foreseen. However, it will be done and will put in place a procedure to manage incidental findings, to ensure that any unexpected discovery during construction period is correctly identified, protected and evaluated in detail.

4.14 Electromagnetic Signals

Wind turbines have the potential to jam electromagnetic signals used for telecommunications, navigation and radar equipment. For these situations, we contacted all the relevant authorities, so have not identified any problem in the operation of the wind farm.

4.15 Emergencies

Wind farms operating in cold climates may suffer in certain weather conditions due to a malfunction or frost and ice accumulation on rotor blades can lead to the phenomenon of "roll" of the rotor blades or ice from the wind turbine, which could affect public safety. The rotor blades of a wind turbine can also suffer effects because of wind shear intensity.
Development companies take measures to reduce this risk by designing turbines that stop automatically when ice accumulation or high speed wind and by conducting regular checks and maintenance works. In addition, GREEN ENERGY park is closed, there will be no agricultural, thus reducing the risk of impact if unlikely, of an accident.

4.16 Cumulative impacts

To achieve Cumulative Impacts Assessment are not known other parks in the next areas.

5.1 Social and Environmental Management

Key mechanism for social and environmental management during detailed design and construction phases of the unpredictable will be to obtain licenses, permits and approvals issued by the Romanian authorities. Each turbine will enter the review twice a year, excluding wear on operating parameters.

5.2 Reporting

Green Energy Foundation will make available to the Romanian authorities any reports required by the agreements, notices and permits.
In addition, important elements of the project will be made known to the locals and other third parties in accordance with stakeholder involvement plan.